Art of the Cross

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To vitalize or even redesign a traditional object, calls for actions beyond changing formal. One has to explore the origins of the object, why it came into use and what functions. By understanding the roots of the cross and the crucifix, its symbolic meaning,. He wished. According to the. The particular forms of tradition, adapted to different places and times, can be.

Combining the gathered information. The logic in my working process on the cross and crucifix that after nearly ten years, ended in. Divided Crucifix went as follows. The Norwegian medieval triumphant. The Irish Christian material heritage. These threads. Figure 6 Figure Risen Cross , height cm. But Risen Cross lacks the suffering aspect.

I realised that to contemplate grief and to proclaim. But how can the joyful and the. My conclusion became that this is. Starting in the symbolic meaning, taking theology as point of departure, I got the idea to split. With four cross arms and one middle part that represent the Christ figure, I got five.

In Divided Crucifix each part represents one liturgical event in which Christ plays a. Palm Sunday — Christ is king. Maundy Thursday — the Eucharist is instituted. Gethsemane Garden — Christ suffers mentally. Good Friday — Christ suffers physically. Easter Morning — Christ is risen. The cross parts themselves are formed as abstractions of a male, height cm.

The gospel. Figure 7 Drawn overview of Divided Crucifix. Figure 8 Divided Crucifix, St. Nikolai Church, Norway.

Jesus' Crucifixion In Art Illustrates One Of The Most Famous Biblical Moments (PHOTOS)

Divided Crucifix tells a story of transformation from strength and gifts, through extreme pain,. It formally associates female experience and psychological thinking, to. Divided Cross is a catechetical work, intended to be used. My aim was to provide a crucifix that visualized the complete Gospel story and ended in a. Divided Crucifix is not a variety of the Stations of the Cross, since. It is a suffering and a victorious crucifix combined.


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Without studying the historical material culture, I hardly would have had the courage to. The Archbishop of Milan, Carlo Borromeo , was the only writer who tried to work out the implications of them. In the early 17th century Cardinal Federico Borromeo founded the religious centre Ambrosiana with the purpose of reforming ecclesial scholarship and the figurative arts. In his book on sacred images, De Pictura Sacra, from , Federico emphasized clarity and scriptural and iconographical accuracy in religious art.

He recognized three interdependent roles of sacred art: the devotional, the didactic, and the documentary. Above all, ecclesial art should express the entire breadth of metaphysical reality, and appeal to all aspects of man: senses, emotions, intellect, and heart. Federico Borromeo wanted ecclesial art to make use of the research method and findings of sacred history in order to give images added potency.

This indicated an adoption of certain approved portrait likenesses, iconographic details, and archaeological information, which should guarantee authenticity. He wished historical scenes to be recorded in an accurate manner in order to demonstrate a rational attitude, which he thought would assert the authority of faith see Jones ; Refsum Birkeli, Fridtjov. Norske steinkors i tidlig middelalder. Et bidrag til belysning av. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget. Borgehammar, Stephan. How the Holy Cross was Found. From Event to Medieval. Catechism of the Catholic Church. London: Geoffrey Chapman.

Crossan, John Dominic. Jesus; A Revolutionary Biography. New York: Harper. Dinkler, Erich. Im Zeichen des Kreuzes. Edited by E. Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter. Signum Crucis. Mohr Paul Siebeck. Drijvers, Jan Willem. Helena Augusta. The Mother of Constantine the Great and the. Legend of Her Finding of the True cross. Leiden: E. Edwards, et al. On the Physical Death of Jesus Christ. Finney, Paul Corby. New York,.

Oxford: Oxford University Press. Hellemo, Geir. In Studier i kilder til vikingtid og nordisk middelalder , edited by M. Jones, Pamela M. Federico Borromeo and the Ambrosiana. Art Patronage and Reform. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. John Paul II, Pope. To Artists. Kuhn, Heinz-Wolfgang. Der Gekreutzigte von Giv'at ha-Mivtar. In Theologica Crucis-. Paul Siebeck. Lexicon der christlichen Iconographie. Band II. Freiburg: Herder. Crucifixus: Das Kreuz in der Kunst unserer. Nordhagen, Per Jonas. Senmiddelalderens billedkunst In Norges. Gyldendal norsk forlag. Refsum, Grete. Genuine Christian Modern Art.

Present Roman Catholic Directives on. Visual Art Seen from an Artist's Persepective. Tostrup and C. Oslo School of Architecture. Christus in der Kunst des Freiburg, Basel, Wien: Herder. Schiller, Gerturd. Ikonographie der christlichen Kunst. Die Passion Jesu Christi. The Jerusalem Bible. Standard Edition. Detroit: Thomson Gale in association. Thomas, Charles. Glasgow: Glasgow. University Publications.

Vatican II. The Conciliar and Post Conciliar Documents. Edited by A. Flannery, O. Voelker, Evelyn Carole. Charles Borromeo's Instructiones Fabricae et Supellectilis. Ecclesiasticae, A Translation with Commentary and Analysis. UMI Dissertation. Services: Graduate School of Syracuse University.

Zias, Joe. Crucifixion in Antiquity. The Evidence [cited Published Proceedings of Cumulus Spring Conference, edited by E. Refsum has during 20 years contributed to the development of research in art and design through her artistic development work and practice-led research, publishing and taking part in the international discourse on these issues through many conferences and publications. Refsum is a pioneer of using art experimentally in catechesis and ecclesial spaces.

Her practice comprises: embellishments, art interventions, performances, workshops and shows of various kinds. Several of her art works are regularly being used liturgically. Christianity and Culture.


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    Articles francais. ArtWay Newsletters. But formally there are two different types: the victorious crucifix that depicts Christ alive standing on the cross, and the suffering crucifix that shows the tortured, dead man hanging on the cross. The crucifix that is regarded traditional in our time stems from the 16th century and is of the suffering type that presupposes onlookers who know the Gospel story. Visually it communicates the opposite of its intended happy meaning. Today, when the Christian narrative is no longer commonly shared and understood, theologians and contemporary cross or crucifix makers are challenged.

    The paper accounts for the present historical understanding of Roman crucifixion; gives a brief review of the development of the cross and crucifix as symbols of Christian faith; presents basic varieties within cross and crucifix iconography; and exemplifies by a work of the author, how knowledge about the historical material heritage can induce innovation. Introduction Familiarity with historical material culture is in certain cases vital for innovation in art and design production.

    When dealing with ecclesial art or design tasks, reference to the Christian material heritage is expected. Still, the Roman Catholic Church normatively asks for genuine Christian art from our own times, which means contemporary interpretations of the Christian message that have significance for people today Refsum , and Pope John Paul II frequently encourages artists and designers to work for the Church John Paul II The outcome of ecclesial art and design production in our time, however, often falls into one of two categories: being either too traditional or too inventive, neither of which represent the ecclesial wish.

    By knowing the ecclesial tradition better, these pitfalls could be avoided. Crosses and crucifixes in Christian contexts refer to the historical event that the Jew Jesus from Galilee was crucified around the year 30 AD. Formally, crucifixes fall into two principal categories: the victorious type that depicts Christ alive, and the suffering type that shows the dead man hanging on the cross. The crucifix that we regard as the prototype today, with an athletic man hanging dead on a Latin cross, is an interpretation of the suffering type that stems from the 16th century.

    This crucifix type visually communicates the opposite of its intended happy meaning; it presupposes that the Gospel story is known. Today, this may not be the case. Second, it gives a brief review of the development of the cross and the crucifix as symbols of Christian faith. Born in Missouri in , Thomas Hart Benton was at the forefront of the regionalist art movement, which sought to depict realistic scenes of rural and small-town America, primarily in the Midwest and Deep South.

    Everyday people and landscapes, he believed, were the proper subject matter for American art. When Benton painted Wheat in , regionalism had long since fallen out of favor. Still, Benton continued to paint scenes such as this one, harking back to a day when America was heavily agricultural. Jesus regularly used examples from the world of farming to teach spiritual lessons, as it was a subject his audiences knew a lot about.

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    He was talking about himself. But one of the stems has snapped, its head falling to the ground. This is part of the life cycle of wheat. It grows, it withers, its kernels fall into the earth, and that burial then becomes a source of new life. At station 10 Jesus is stripped of his clothing, which the Roman soldiers then divide up amongst themselves, casting lots to determine what each should take. The Romans crucified criminals naked and in public so as to further humiliate them.

    The Naked Man by Joseph Hirsch represents a different narrative context, but the vulnerability that comes with being unclothed, and a somber sense of calling, can be read in the painting. This tall young man has just been drafted into military service, as signified by the dog tags and boots around his neck. His pale bare skin against the dark background emphasizes the starkness of this ritual act: stripping off the old civilian life and putting on the life of a soldier. The youth has just performed the first part and now he braces himself for the second, preparing to walk the red-arrowed path marked out before him.

    In he was a founding member of the cultural group Nuestra Tiempo, and after Fulgencia Batista seized power of the country in , he fought against him as an urban guerrilla. He died in The role of the artist is not simply to live history, he is to be on the side of those who suffer history. He is to be their voice when they are voiceless. In this bronze, titled The Unknown Political Prisoner , a faceless man, enfeebled from beatings, bows his head. His hands are restrained behind his back, and a thick barbed wire, symbol of his imprisonment, spans the height of his body.

    He is pinned to a wall, much like Jesus was nailed to the cross. Political prisoners all throughout Latin America often report how they find strength in the example of Jesus Christ, a revolutionary who was for the people over and against oppressive systems. The armed retinue was mocking the one crowned with thorns.

    They took off his rags and beat his head with a cane. Offensive mouths spat on the man with the long hair, rebel eyes, and unkempt beard. So, mocked by the soldiers and with a mistreated body, a bloodied man was dying before the eyes of the high priests— supreme hypocrisy, supreme meanness and greed.

    Today I remember you, a freedom-loving Christ, vagabond in time, dubious in space. What matters the chain, the fiefdom, the wage, to be Nazarene or Chacabuco inmate, if you are on earth, brother Christ, Son, with dirty face and calloused hands, flesh and blood of the people, lord of history, at home with the plane and hammer,. Eternal resident of the poor and barren hovel with roof of tin or stars, floor of sand or dirt, modest or captive walls, you do not dwell in the oppressive mansion, the caves of thieves, or the palace of Caesar.

    Yes, I prefer the witness of the one who walks, suffers, and loves, of one who sings, weeps, and loves, of one who struggles, dies, and loves.

    Best Cross art images in | Cross art, Christian art, Frames

    I understand you, Christ, because I know betrayal and the spear, because, like you, I say I am king and claim my crown. Barbed wire is also featured prominently in this second image for station 11, a painting by Chicano artist Domingo Ulloa titled Braceros. While it sounded great on paper, the braceros faced harsh living and working conditions and discrimination and were often cheated of their wages. Ulloa painted this scene after several visits to a bracero camp in Holtville, California, where he observed these injustices firsthand. Its composition—a crowd of workers peering dejectedly through a barbed-wire fence—recalls the photographs of Nazi concentration camp inmates, which, as a World War II veteran, Ulloa was all too familiar with.

    Their plight received primetime attention in when season 3 of the Emmy-nominated television drama American Crime aired, with one of its two main story lines set on a farm in North Carolina. The sculpture shows Jesus on the cross having breathed his last breath, his mother collapsed to her knees in grief. A ladder has already been propped up against the cross to retrieve the dead body. The Smithsonian American Art Museum has one of the largest collections of Puerto Rican santos in the world—over six hundred.

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    On June 17, , white supremacist Dylann Roof entered the midweek prayer service at the Emanuel African Methodist Episcopal Church in Charleston, South Carolina, and shot dead nine of its members with the express purpose of igniting a race war. Requiem for Charleston by Lava Thomas honors the memory of these men and women.

    This mixed-media artwork features an arrangement of tambourines whose axes form the shape of a cross. Thomas said she wanted the names to be subtle so that viewers will move up close to the piece and spend time deciphering. Some of the tambourines are left blank in memory of the many other men, women, and children who have died in acts of racial violence against churches throughout history. Tambourines are used in many cultures as a form of expression in worship and in protest.

    In the black church they often provide the principal rhythmic driving force of the service. Here, though, instead of jingling, the bells are still, a silent tribute to the lives lost. We met William H. Johnson at station 3, The Breakdown. He was devastated. He painted Lamentation that year while processing his grief, along with other scenes of the dead Christ, like Mount Calvary , also owned by this museum. Shortly after, Johnson developed a mental illness—diagnosed as paralytic dementia—and he spent the last thirty-three years of his life at a hospital in New York, unable to produce any art.

    They wear patterned cotton dresses, gold halos, and varied reactions to the death of their beloved. Behind them the sky is dark, as if it too is in mourning. The corpses of the two criminals Jesus was killed with still hang on their crosses. John McLaughlin studied Japanese art and language for years in both the US and Japan before he began painting at age forty-eight. In this untitled work of his from , McLaughlin layers two rectangular bars—one white, one gray—on top of a solid black plane, situating them in the bottom third of the canvas.

    We are on our way home from Good Friday service. It is dark. It is silent. It must have been like that. A white blossom, or maybe a red one, pulsing from the floor of the tomb, reaching round the Easter stone and levering it aside with pliant thorns. The soldiers overcome with the fragrance, and Mary at sunrise mistaking the dawn-dewed Rose of Sharon for the untameable Gardener.

    For weekly art, music, and poetry presented from a Christian faith perspective, visit ArtandTheology. What was the experience like for you? What work made the biggest impression? Did you appreciate the music overlays, or were they distracting? Was the SoundCloud audio distribution platform convenient and practicable? Short of hiring professionals to read and studio-record the commentary, design the album cover and promotional materials, and develop a custom app, is there anything you would have changed about the tour?

    Again, I really appreciate your input, as it will guide me in developing similar products in the future. Thank you! Dorsey, performed by Mahalia Jackson, This was Martin Luther King Jr. Jazz at Lincoln Center , Coda: Piano Concerto No. I loved this, thank you. I particularly liked the ones with poetry, as I think you make links which open me to new ideas, thank you. After the first 2 I stopped listening as I found the verbal commentary and the music distracting.

    I really appreciated the transcripts- I found I could re-read them in different ways picking out different aspects each time: the Art methods, the painter, the social conditions. So many were about the Depression, or Jesus as a black person Interesting we can represent Christ as a black man but not a woman…. Like Like. Thanks so much for the feedback. I hope to feature more poetry on the blog this year. I was considering using the Rosa Parks sculpture by Marshall D. While there are artists who have represented women as Christ figures e.


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    Thank you for that observation! Like Liked by 1 person. Thank you so much for putting so much work and attention to detail into this. I have shared this site with the artists who are participating. I appreciate all you do to keep art at the forefront of faith. Thank you for your kind words, Kiersten. I pray that the installation is a blessing to all involved—both artists and viewers. You have put an enormous amount of effort into this full and wonderful post.

    Thank you from across the sea! As I live in the D. Unfortunately, only seven of the artworks can be seen; for those we gave thanks to a helpful young woman in the Luce Center who looked up the locations for us. The artworks are not so easy to find once leaving the Luce, but we did locate those works on view and found your commentary informative and valuable. I returned the location information to the front desk staff, who did not initially understand what we were looking for, so that any other visitors coming to the museum as a result of your post could be directed appropriately. If you want to be sure before you visit, you can check the status of each on the SAAM website, which, I found out, is always current down to the day.

    Was it 1 because the locations are mislabeled on this blog post, 2 just due to the generality of location and large size of the museum, or 3 due to the fact that some works have been removed from view? Would you be able to send me a list of the works that were not on view during your visit?