Designing Quality Youth Programs: Strategic Changes Across Structures, Policies, and Activities

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Helping leaders get young people ready for life

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Can I benefit from free shipping internationally? Can I reach the threshold combining domestic and international items from Amazon Global Store in the same order? Should I pay a subscription fee to qualify for free shipping? A process for systematically reviewing the literature: providing the research evidence for public health nursing interventions. Worldviews Evid-Based Nurs. Meta-study as diagnostic: toward content over form in qualitative synthesis. Qual Health Res. A test of basic psychological needs theory in a physical-activity-based program for underserved youth.

J Sport Exerc Psychol. Exploring the impact of a summer sport-based youth development program. Eval Program Plann. Participant perceptions of character concepts in a physical activity-based positive youth development program. Correlates of long-term participation in a physical activity-based positive youth development program for low-income youth: sustained involvement and psychosocial outcomes. J Adolesc. The role of a caring-based intervention in a physical activity setting. Urban Rev. Influence of caring youth sport contexts on efficacy-related beliefs and social behaviors.

Dev Psych. Staff practices and social skill outcomes in a sport-based youth program. J Appl Sport Psychol. Social connection and psychological outcomes in a physical activity-based youth development setting. Res Q Exerc Sport. Maximizing youth experiences in community sport settings: the design and impact of the LiFE sports camp.

Miller SC. A program to promote the sociomoral growth of at-risk youth doctoral dissertation; order no. Berkeley, University of California at Berkeley; Farrell K. J Sport Dev. Developing responsibility using physical activity: a case study of team support. Melendez A, Martinek T. Life after project effort: applying values acquired in a responsibility-based physical activity program. Revista Internacional de Ciencias del Deporte.

Transference of responsibility model goals to the school environment: exploring the impact of a coaching club program. Phys Educ Sport Pedagogy. Impact of the kinesiology career Club: a TPSR-based possible futures program for youth in underserved communities. Phys Educ. Wright PM, Burton S. Implementation and outcomes of a responsibility-based physical activity program integrated into an intact high school physical education class. J Teach Phys Educ. Exploring the individualized experiences of participants in a responsibility-based youth development program. Cryan M, Martinek T. Youth sport development through soccer: an evaluation of an after-school program using the TPSR model.

Jacobs JM. What is learned and does it transfer? Integrating a personal and social responsibility program into a wellness course for urban high school students: assessing implementation and educational outcomes.

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Sport Educ Soc. Girls on the run: a quasi-experimental evaluation of a developmentally focused youth sport program. J Phys Act Health. Changes in psychosocial factors and physical activity frequency among third- to eighth-grade girls who participated in a developmentally focused youth sport program: a preliminary study.

Waldron JJ. Findings from an experimental evaluation of Playworks: effects on play, physical activity and recess. Report submitted to the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. Princeton: Mathematica Policy Research; Impact and implementation findings from an experimental evaluation of Playworks: effects on school climate, academic learning, student social skills and behavior.

Playworks implementation in 17 schools nationwide. Physical activity and positive youth development: impact of a school-based program. Playing fair: the contribution of high-functioning recess to overall school climate in low-income elementary schools. The impact of a recess-based leadership program on urban elementary school students. The impact of a multi-component physical activity programme in low-income elementary schools. Health Educ J. Qual Res Sport Exer Health.

Evaluation of the first tee in promoting positive youth development: group comparisons and longitudinal trends. The impact of a sport-based life skill program on adolescent prosocial values.

Appl Dev Sci. Kang S, Svensson PG. Examining the influence of shared and servant leadership on organizational performance in sport for development and peace. Marvul JN. If you build it, they will come: a successful truancy intervention program in a small high school. Urban Educ. Support Center Support Center.

External link. Please review our privacy policy. Process: Engagement and interaction between staff and youth noted as a major strength; behavioral management and social skill promotion were areas in need of improvement. No philosophical assumptions discussed. Evidence of selection bias; no comparison group; large percentage of participants who did not complete measures; lack of blinded outcomes; less than optimal scale reliabilities; philosophical assumptions, data collection methods, and data analysis methods not reported in detail.

Social competence, sport-specific competence, belonging, self-control, effort, teamwork, social responsibility. Efficacy: Social responsibility was reported to increase from pre-to-posttest. Evidence of selection bias; no comparison group; lack of reporting on withdrawals; lack of blinded outcomes. Caring climate, emotional self-regulation, empathic self-efficacy, prosocial and antisocial behaviors.

Cross-sectional study design; unable to account for likely covariates; amount of variance explained in models suggests other factors are salient in explaining behaviors. Efficacy: No changes reported in self-worth or hope across the program. Single group; non-causal design; measurement time lag; small effect sizes.

Psychological need support, psychological need satisfaction, hope, self-worth. Process: Leader behavior was shown to influence child level outcomes regardless of group. Participants attended a 5-week summer camp sponsored by the NYSP. Caring, perceived motivational climate, empathic concern, enjoyment, anticipated future participation. Efficacy: Caring group participants reported a higher level of perceived caring climate and lower level of perceived ego-oriented climate. Evidence of selection bias; non-blinded measures; lack of control for confounding variables; no information reported on dropouts; post-test only design.

Process: Program seen as a safe place where youth can build high-quality and reciprocal relationships. Philosophical underpinnings consistent with theory and method used in study. Use of grounded theory analysis techniques without completing a grounded theory study. Efficacy: Parents reported the camp provided general levels of biopsychosocial development, opportunities to explore broader horizons, and enhanced levels of psycho-social skills. Evidence of selection bias; lack of comparison group; non-blinded outcomes.

Leader support, social competence, physical competence, self-worth, attraction to PA, hope. Efficacy: Perceived social competence, perceived physical competence, physical self-worth, and global self-worth increased from pre to post program; no other variables showed change. Lack of control group; lack of blinded outcome measures; short intervention and follow-up period. Intervention was an after-school soccer program grounded in TPSR principles.

Efficacy: There were no within group differences reported for personal responsibility, however within group improvements of social responsibility were noted. Single group study; small sample size; selection bias; inconsistent attendance during intervention; non-blinded outcomes. Intervention was a school-based program that used life skills programming and physical activity within the TPSR model.

Process: Data suggest that TPSR components of integration, transfer, empowerment, and teacher-student relationships were followed. Lack of female participants; lack of differentiation between researcher and advisor roles; disconnect between cultural norms of key stakeholders. Intervention was school-based and conducted within a volleyball unit of a physical education curriculum using TPSR principles. Efficacy: No group x time differences were reported for transfer of life skills. Lack of control for possible confounding variables; non-blinded outcomes; high risk for type I statistical error given the amount of analyses.

This qualitative paper examined program experiences in a community-based sport organization. Efficacy: Participants discussed personal impact of sport program, social responsibility, life skill development, and situational insights. Short interviews; lack of consistent methodology; highly deductive coding procedure.

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TPSR-based program in which youth leaders create physical activity lessons that reinforce life skills. Efficacy: Stage 1 is composed of needs-based leadership, Stage 2 is composed of planning and teaching, Stage 3 is composed of reflective leadership, and Stage 4 is composed of compassionate leadership. Philosophical assumptions, sampling strategy, sample description, data analysis methods, and validity assessments not reported.

Intervention used sport clubs grounded in TPSR principles, mentoring, and youth leadership training. Small sample and lack of data regarding skills learned outside of program; deductive analysis. Intervention was school-based and conducted within a physical education course. Intervention was a youth-led TPSR program that met 1 day per week throughout the school year and for 3 weeks in the summer.

Process: Antecedents to commitment: program environment, program structure, relationship, personal characteristics. TPSR-based career club program in which sport is used to teach responsibility and older and younger participants are paired to work within a mentoring relationship. Efficacy: Participants reported the importance of having to work hard and stay focused, increased communication skills, clarity about the future, determination, ability to see path to goals, and increased effort and performance in school.

TPSR-based coaching club intervention that included 45 sessions over two academic school years. Efficacy: Transfer of respect to the school environment; transfer of self- and emotional control in the school yard; worked harder in school; took more ownership over action in school; helped others and learned how to be an example for others outside of the program.

Authors discuss grounded theory analysis techniques, but did not conduct a grounded theory study. Kinesiology Career Club is a TPSR-based program aimed at helping high school youth explore future careers in kinesiology. Efficacy: Results discussed helping participants connect TPSR goals to possible futures, envisioning and exploring a career in Kinesiology, and helping to balance hopes and fears.

TPSR-based program developed to address the challenges faced by refugee youth. Process: Themes discussed included having fun, experiencing sports, being a member of a team, and developing a relationship with adults. Philosophical assumptions, methodology, and sampling strategy not explicitly addressed.

Small sample size; limited program space; deductive nature of the analysis. Intervention was a school-based Tai Chi program grounded in TPSR principles and conducted within a physical education course. Process: Results discussed establishing a relevant curriculum, practicing life skills within program, seeing the potential to practice life skills outside of program, and creating a valued program. Lack of philosophical underpinnings to study; reliance on deductive coding. Efficacy: No significant group differences reported.

Data analysis limited the results. Selection bias; unclear blinding protocols; gender differences not explored; study restricted to one school; lack of control for known co-variates; deductive qualitative analysis. Process: Overall positive program perceptions were discussed. Participants engaged in a week program that meets twice per week for 1. Self-reported PA data; selection bias; retrospective design; lack of control for potential confounding variable; non-blinded measures. Efficacy: Significant improvements reported in self-esteem, body size satisfaction, and eating behaviors.

Single-group study; lack of control for confounding variables; self-reported outcomes. Self-esteem, body image satisfaction, eating attitudes and behaviors, attitudes towards PA, empowerment, self-reported PA. Efficacy: Significant improvements reported in self-esteem, body size satisfaction, and PA behaviors, and some healthy eating and empowerment items.


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Single-group study; lack of control for confounding variables; self-reported outcomes; different levels of exposure. Efficacy: Significant improvements reported in self-esteem, body size satisfaction, and PA behaviors. Efficacy: Significant pre-post differences reported for self-esteem, body size satisfaction, and PA frequency. Single-group study; large amounts of missing data; use of partial measures could question validity; unclear blinding protocols.

Efficacy: No group x time interaction effects were found for self-esteem, body size discrepancy, or PA commitment.

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Selection bias due to low enrollment, non-blinded outcomes; data collected in one school district could confound results; possible seasonal differences in PA; inconsistent administration of survey data. Body consciousness, body esteem, nutrition, self-efficacy, attitude toward PA and mentorship. Selection bias; lack of reporting on withdraws; non-blinded outcomes; qualitative data lacked depth.

Efficacy: Small but significant effects for pre-post perceived social competence, perceived physical competence, and perceived physical appearance competence. Single-group study; selection bias; non-blinded outcomes; small sample size; use of grounded theory coding, without grounded theory methodology.

Randomized controlled trial, cross-sectional analysis only i. Efficacy: Children at Playworks schools had significantly higher levels of: a physical activity, b teacher-reported safety and inclusion, and c student-reported positive behavior and attention in class than those at control schools. No differences were reported in youth development, children perceptions of safety, teacher-reported classroom behavior, or academic outcomes. Principal, recess coach, teacher interviews, recess observations at multiple time points, and student focus groups at each school.

Efficacy: Playworks implementation resulted in a higher quality recess. School-based program in which full-time trained coaches work in schools and teach and coordinate a variety of playground sports and games; work with classroom teachers to provide additional PA opportunities; provide a peer leadership program; and work to generate family and community involvement.

Internal and external assets as assessed by the California Healthy Kids Survey. Efficacy: With each additional year of exposure to Playworks, students reported significantly higher scores in PA, meaningful participation in school, problem solving skills, and goal aspirations; effects reported were small but clinically meaningful when considered across time and within the context of percentile rank. Adult-student playground interactions, playground behavior, classroom behavior.

Process: Playworks schools had significantly more positive adult-student interactions and significantly less conflict on the playground than a non-intervention comparison. Lack of comparison group at baseline for observations; non-randomized design; small sample for classroom observations; lack of detail on philosophical underpinnings and sampling strategy.

Process and Efficacy: Participants discussed various aspects of leadership and how that influenced the decision to become a junior coach, the role of a junior coach, training received, and developmental impacts as a result of the experience. Social responsibility, interpersonal reactivity, social interests, goals, community service.

Process: Whether or not individuals completed their community service requirement had a significant effect on empathic concern and social responsibility. No true control group; self-report measures; short intervention time-frame; large percentage of loss to follow-up. Intervention consists of a program in which golf and life skills are taught in a systematic and progressive program that addresses interpersonal, self-management, goal setting, and advanced social skills.

Interpersonal and self-management skills, transfer of skills to other domains. Efficacy: Identified skill development in meeting and greeting others, showing respect, and emotion management within and outside of the program. Multivariate analysis of covariance group difference ; latent growth modeling intervention group only. Non-blinded outcomes; unclear sampling procedures in Study 1; baseline differences in groups in Study 1. Efficacy: Program participants saw in increase in GPA from 2.

Efficacy: Data from exit interviews showed that youth in the program perceived that they developed life schools, had academic and athletic accomplishments, engaged in community service, built relationships with important others, and had a more positive outlook on life. Data from exit interviews that were administered by academic coach; lack of philosophical or methodological underpinning. Intervention is an academic sports mentoring program. Efficacy: No differences reported for academic engagement between groups. Valued aspects of program, how outcomes may have transferred out of program.

Efficacy: Results focused on academic enrichment, academic transfer, relationships, and a focus on personal and social responsibility. Lack of philosophical underpinnings to study; use of grounded theory analysis without doing a grounded theory study. Intellectual functioning, academic functioning, academic achievement, social support. Efficacy: No differences found between groups on academic engagement, individual academic skills math, oral language , or social support.

Approximately participants in older group and approximately in younger group. Analysis of covariance; hierarchical linear regression modeling; content analysis. Fitness, high impact attributes HIA , self-reported nutrition, coach quality, dose. Process: More time with coaches was related to outcomes, but coach quality was a negative predictor of HIA in younger children. Unclear information on missing data; lack of control for confounding variables. Efficacy: Significant effects reported for increased PA.

Large amounts of missing data; no information on reliability or validity of measures; unclear blinding procedures. This intervention took place within a trauma treatment facility. Efficacy: Significant effects for restraints, timeouts needed, internalizing behavior, and externalizing behavior were reported in favor of the treatment group. Likely selection bias; unclear description of control for possible confounding variables; unclear blinding procedures; lack of reliability reported for observational measures. Life goals, social conflicts, emotional regulation, behavior, stress, challenges.

Efficacy: Compared to youth not in the sport league, those in the sport league reported less personal distress and more perspective taking, higher levels of emotional regulation, higher social cognition, and higher heart rate variability. Likely selection bias; unclear description of control for possible confounding variables; unclear blinding procedures; lack of reliability reported for observational measures; missing data.

Mentor-based program that incorporated sport, physical activity, nutrition, and life skills. Process: Active participation and planning, connection to community, sense of belonging, trust, information channels, norms, and sanctions.

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Age and developmental ranges of participants; lack of philosophical underpinnings, theory, and specific analytical procedures. Read more: 'Practical tips for engaging teams in process improvement. Technology: Organizations can change their technology for example the way they produce whatever they sell in order to increase efficiency and lower costs. Human-Behavioral Changes: Training can be provided to managers and employees to provide new knowledge and skills, or people can be replaced or downsized.

As result of the recent financial crisis, many organizations downsized creating massive unemployment that continues to this day. Task-Job Design: The way work is performed in the organization can be changed with new procedures and methods for performing work. Organizational Structure : Organizations can change the way they are structured in order to be more responsive to their external environment. Again to be more responsive to the marketplace, this also includes where decisions should be made in the organization centralized or decentralized.

Organizational Culture: Entities can attempt to change their culture , including management and leadership styles, values and beliefs. Of all the things organizations can change, this is by far the most difficult to undertake.


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