Murder Casts a Shadow: A Hawaii Mystery (A Latitude 20 Book)

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Such a break did not always produce a cleartext version of the intercepted message; only a break in the third phase could do so. Only after breaking the underlying code another difficult process would the message be available, and even then its meaning—in an intelligence sense—might be less than fully clear. When a new edition was released, the cryptographers were forced to start again. The original JNA system replaced the 'Blue' code as Americans called it , and used five-digit numbers, each divisible by three and so usable as a quick, and somewhat reliable, error check, as well as something of a 'crib' to cryptanalysts , giving a total of 33, legal code values.

To make it harder to crack a code value, meaningless additives from a large table or book of five-digit numbers were added arithmetically to each five-digit cipher element. JNB had 55, valid words, and while it initially used the same additive list, this was soon changed and the cryptanalysts found themselves entirely locked out again. Over the years, various claims have been made as to the progress made decrypting this system, and arguments made over when it was readable in whole or part.

This comment, however, refers not to the message itself but to the superenciphering additives and referred to the ease of attacking the code using a new method for discovery of additive values. The 16 November letter [65] to L. Parks OPGY sent by Leitwiler states, "We have stopped work on the period 1 February to 31 July as we have all we can do to keep up with the current period. We are reading enough current traffic to keep two translators very busy. Safford from the Hewitt Inquiry [66] has a copy of the U.

Com 16's estimates were more reliable than Com 14's, not only because of better radio interception, but because Com 16 was currently reading messages in the Japanese Fleet Cryptographic System "5-number code" or "JN25" and was exchanging technical information and Japanese-to-English translations [67] with the British unit the Far East Combined Bureau then at Singapore. Arthur H. McCollum was aware of this, and it may have been part of his thinking when he drafted the McCollum memo. Duane L. Detailed month by month progress reports have shown no reason to believe any JNB messages were fully decrypted before the start of the war.

In all, the U. So convinced were U. Navy planners Japan could only stage a single operation at a time, [71] after intercepts indicated a Japanese buildup for operations in the Dutch East Indies, for more than two weeks between 1 November and 17 November , no JN message not relating to that expected operation was even examined for intelligence value. Japanese espionage against Pearl Harbor involved at least two Abwehr agents.

One of them, Otto Kuhn , was a sleeper agent living in Hawaii with his family. Kuhn was incompetent and there is no evidence he provided information of value. In August , he was sent by the Abwehr to the U.

It is possible that previous propaganda and forged or unreliable intelligence from the British contributed to J. Edgar Hoover 's dismissing Popov's interest in Pearl Harbor as unimportant. Popov later asserted his list was a clear warning of the attack, ignored by the bungling FBI. The questions in his list were rambling and general, and in no way pointed to air attack on Pearl Harbor.

Prange considered Popov's claim overblown, and argued the notorious questionnaire was a product of Abwehr thoroughness. Furthermore, the Japanese did not need Abwehr assistance, having a consulate in Hawaii which had on its staff an undercover IJN intelligence officer, Takeo Yoshikawa. Sometimes called a "master spy", he was in fact quite young, and his reports not infrequently contained errors.

Pearl Harbor base security was so lax Yoshikawa had no difficulty obtaining access, even taking the Navy's own harbor tourboat. Even had he not, hills overlooking the Harbor were perfect for observation or photography, and were freely accessible. Some of his information, and presumably other material from the Consulate, was hand-delivered to IJN intelligence officers aboard Japanese commercial vessels calling at Hawaii prior to the War; at least one is known to have been deliberately routed to Hawaii for this purpose during the summer.

Most, however, seem to have been transmitted to Tokyo, almost certainly via cable the usual communication method with Tokyo. Many of those messages were intercepted and decrypted by the U. None of those currently known, including those decrypted after the attack when there was finally time to return to those remaining undecrypted, explicitly stated anything about an attack on Pearl Harbor.

In November , advertisements for a new board game called "The Deadly Double" appeared in American magazines. These ads later drew suspicion for possibly containing coded messages, for unknown agents, giving advance notice of the Pearl Harbor attack.

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The ads were headlined "Achtung, Warning, Alerte! It was suggested that these could possibly be interpreted as giving warning of an air raid on day "7" of month "12" at approximate latitude coordinate "20" Roman numeral "XX". There are claims that, as the Kido Butai the Striking Force steamed toward Hawaii, radio signals were detected that alerted U. To the experienced radio operator, each has a unique and identifiable pattern. For example, kana , International Morse, and "Continental" Morse all have a specific rhythmic sound to the "dit" and "dah" combinations.

This is how Lurline ' s radiomen, Leslie Grogan, a U. Navy reserve officer in naval communications, and with decades of maritime service in the Pacific [79] identified the mooted signal source as Japanese and not, say, Russian. There are several problems with this analysis. Surviving officers from the Japanese ships state there was no radio traffic to have been overheard by anyone: their radio operators had been left in Japan to send fake traffic, and all radio transmitters aboard the ships even those in the airplanes [ citation needed ] were physically disabled to prevent any inadvertent or unauthorized broadcast.

The Kido Butai was constantly receiving intelligence and diplomatic updates. In that time period, it was known for a radio signal to reflect from the ionosphere an atmospheric layer ; ionospheric skip could result in its reception hundreds or even thousands of miles away. Receiving antennas were sometimes detected passively 'rebroadcasting' signals that reached them at much lower amplitudes, sufficiently low that the phenomenon was not of practical importance, nor even of much significance. Some have argued that, since the Kido Butai contained a large number of possible receiving antennas, it is conceivable the task force did not break radio silence but was detected anyway.

Such detection would not have helped the Americans track the Japanese fleet. A radio direction finder DF or RDF from that time period reported compass direction without reference to distance. Moreover, it was common for the receiving stations to report erroneous reciprocal bearings. If the target was moving, the detections must be close to one another in time. To plot the task force's course with certainty, at least four such detections must have been made in proper time-pairs, and the information analyzed in light of further information received by other means.

This complex set of requirements did not occur; if the Kido Butai was detected, it was not tracked. The original records of Lurline surrendered to Lt. George W. Pease, 14th Naval District in Honolulu, have disappeared. Thus no contemporaneously written evidence of what was recorded aboard Lurline is now available.

Murder Frames the Scene: A Hawai‘i Mystery

Grogan commented on a signal source "moving" eastward in the North Pacific over several days as shown via "relative bearings" which then "bunched up" and stopped moving. According to author Jacobsen, Japanese commercial shipping vessels are the likely source. A re-discovered personal report written by Grogan after the radio log had been passed to the 13th Naval District, dated 10 December and titled "Record for Posterity", also does not support claims of Kido Butai broadcasting.

The contention that "low-powered" radio such as VHF or what the U. Navy called TBS , or talk between ships , might have been used, and detected, is contradicted as impossible due to the tremendous distances involved [86] and when contact was lost, it was routinely presumed it was because low-powered radio and land line were being used. By removing this fallacious lynchpin propping up such claims of Kido Butai radio transmissions, the attendant suspected conspiracy tumbles down like a house of cards.

Further, the perspective of U. The significance of the term, 'tactical circuit' is that the vessel itself, that is Akagi , was using its own radio to call up the other vessels directly rather than work them through shore stations via the broadcast method which was the common practice in Japanese communications. The working of the Akagi with the Marus, indicated that she was making arrangements for fuel or some administrative function, since a carrier would rarely address a maru. According to a Japanese after action report , [92] "In order to keep strict radio silence, steps such as taking off fuses in the circuit, and holding and sealing the keys were taken.

During the operation, the strict radio silence was perfectly carried out The Kido Butai used the radio instruments for the first time on the day of the attack since they had been fixed at the base approximately twenty days before and proved they worked well. Paper flaps had been inserted between key points of some transmitters on board Akagi to keep the strictest radio silence Kazuiyoshi Koichi, the Communications Officer for Hiei , dismantled vital transmitter parts and kept them in a box that he used as a pillow to prevent Hiei from making any radio transmissions until the attack commenced.

To keep radio silence was easy to say, but not so easy to maintain. Kusaka worried about this when it was briefly broken on the way home. The appendix to the war-initiating operational order is also often debated. Except in extreme emergency the Main Force and its attached force will cease communicating. Other forces are at the discretion of their respective commanders. Supply ships, repair ships, hospital ships, etc. The Task Force then drew up its own operational order , which was given for the first time to the whole force at Hitokappu Bay In paragraph four of the appendix to that document, the especially secret Strike Force was specifically directed to 'maintain strict radio silence from the time of their departure from the Inland Sea.

Their communications will be handled entirely on the general broadcast communications net. The Japanese practiced radio deception. Susumu Ishiguru, intelligence and communications officer for Carrier Division Two , stated, "Every day false communications emanated from Kyushu at the same time and same wavelength as during the training period. The ships left their own regular wireless operators behind to carry on "routine" radio traffic. Captain Sadatoshi Tomioka stated, "The main force in the Inland Sea and the land-based air units carried out deceptive communications to indicate the carriers were training in the Kyushu area.

Analysis of the bearings from Navy DF stations account for claimed breaks of radio silence, and when plotted, the bearings point to Japanese naval bases, not where the Kido Butai actually was. When asked after the attack just how he knew where Akagi was, Rochefort [] who commanded HYPO at the time said he recognized her "same ham-fisted" radio operators. The Japanese contend that radio operators were left behind as part of the deception operation. The critical DF-tracked radio transmissions show bearings that could have not come from the strike force. Additionally, Japanese submarines were sighted and attacked by the destroyer Ward outside the harbor entrance a few hours before the attack commenced, and at least one was sunk—all before the planes began launching.

This might have provided enough notice to disperse aircraft and fly off reconnaissance, except, yet again, reactions of the duty officers were tardy. It has been argued that failure to follow up on DF bearings saved Enterprise. If she had been correctly directed, she might have run into the six carrier Japanese strike force. After the attack, the search for the attack force was concentrated south of Pearl Harbor, continuing the confusion and ineffectiveness of the American response. Locally, Naval Intelligence in Hawaii had been tapping telephones at the Japanese Consulate before the 7th.

Among much routine traffic was overheard a most peculiar discussion of flowers in a call to Tokyo the significance of which is still publicly opaque and which was discounted in Hawaii at the time , but the Navy's tap was discovered and removed in the first week of December. The local FBI field office was informed of neither the tap nor its removal; the local FBI Agent in charge later claimed he would have had installed one of his own had he known the Navy's had been disconnected.

Throughout , the U. The Japanese attack on the U. Fleet at Pearl Harbor when it was first proposed in early , and remained reluctant after the Navy approved planning and training for an attack beginning in spring , and through the highest level Imperial Conferences in September and November which first approved it as policy allocation of resources, preparation for execution , and then authorized the attack. The Japanese focus on Southeast Asia was quite accurately reflected in U.

Pearl Harbor was not mentioned. In fact, when the final part of the "Part Message" also called the "one o'clock message" crossed Kramer's desk, he cross-referenced the time per usual practice, not the brainwave often portrayed and tried to connect the timing to a Japanese convoy the Thai invasion force recently detected by Admiral Hart in the Philippines. Navy was aware of the traditional planning of the Imperial Japanese Navy for war with the U. The Japanese made no secret of it, and in the s American radio intelligence gave U. Pacific Fleet assured by the Washington Naval Treaty , and still taken as given was whittled down by primarily night attacks by light forces, such as destroyers and submarines.

War Plan Orange reflected this in its own planning for an advance across the Pacific. There had been a specific claim of a plan for an attack on Pearl Harbor from the Peruvian Ambassador to Japan in early The source of this intelligence was traced to the Ambassador's Japanese cook. Since Yamamoto had not yet decided to even argue for an attack on Pearl Harbor, discounting Ambassador Grew's report to Washington in early was quite sensible. Later reports from a Korean labor organization also seem to have been regarded as unlikely, though they may have had better grounding in actual IJN actions.

Popov [] further revealed that the Japanese had requested detailed information about the British attack on the Italian fleet at Taranto. For whatever reason, the FBI took no action. Several authors have controversially claimed that Winston Churchill had significant advance knowledge of the attack on Pearl Harbor but intentionally chose not to share this information with the Americans in order to secure their participation in the war. These authors allege that Churchill knew that the Japanese were planning an imminent attack against the United States by mid-November of They furthermore claim that Churchill knew that the Japanese fleet was leaving port on November 26, to an unknown destination.

Finally, they claim that on December 2nd, the British intercepted Admiral Yamamoto's signal indicating December 7th as the day of an attack. From a Joint Intelligence Sub-Committee session of 5 December [] it was stated "We knew that they changed course. I remember presiding over a J.

There was no session on 5 December nor was Pearl Harbor discussed when they did meet on 3 December. In late November , both the U. Navy and Army sent explicit warnings of war with Japan to all Pacific commands. Although these plainly stated the high probability of imminent war with Japan, and instructed recipients to be accordingly on alert for war, they did not mention the likelihood of an attack on Pearl Harbor itself, instead focusing on the Far East.

Washington forwarded none of the raw intelligence it had, and little of its intelligence estimates after analysis , to Hawaiian commanders, Admiral Husband E. Kimmel and General Walter C. Washington did not solicit their views about likelihood of war or Hawaiian special concerns. Washington's war warning messages have also been criticised by some e. Since the Army was officially responsible for the security of the Pearl Harbor facilities and Hawaiian defense generally, and so of the Navy's ships while in port, Army actions are of particular interest.

Short reported to Washington he had increased his alert level but his earlier change in meaning for those levels was not understood in Washington and led to misunderstanding there about what he was really doing. In addition, Short's main concern was sabotage from fifth columnists expected to precede the outbreak of war for decades preceding the attack , [] which accounts for his orders that Army Air Corps planes be parked close together near the center of the airfields.

There seems to have been no increased Army urgency about getting its existing radar equipment properly integrated with the local command and control in the year it had been available and operational in Hawaii before the attack. Leisurely radar training continued and the recently organized early warning center was left minimally staffed. Anti-aircraft guns remained in a state of low readiness, with ammunition in secured lockers. Neither Army long-range bombers nor Navy PBYs were used effectively, remaining on a peacetime maintenance and use schedule.

Short evidently failed to understand he had the responsibility to defend the fleet. Little was done to prepare for air attack. Inter-service rivalries between Kimmel and Short did not improve the situation. Particularly, most intelligence information was sent to Kimmel, assuming he would relay it to Short, and vice versa ; this assumption was honored mostly in the breach. Hawaii did not have a Purple cipher machine although, by agreement at the highest levels between U. However, since Short had no liaison with Kimmel's intelligence staff, he was usually left out of the loop. Henry Clausen reported the war warnings could not be more precise because Washington could not risk Japan guessing the U.

Clausen does not answer why Washington could not have said "an exceptionally reliable source" was involved, with very strong instructions to pay attention. Additionally, Clausen claims military men of Kimmel and Short's seniority and background should have understood the significance of the warnings, and should have been more vigilant than they were, as for instance in scouting plane flights from Hawaii, which were partial at best in the period just before the attack.

All other Pacific commands took appropriate measures [ citation needed ] for their situations.

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Like most commentators, Clausen ignores what the "war warnings" and their context explicitly warn, though indistinctly, against. Washington, with more complete intelligence than any field command, expected an attack anywhere on a list of possible locations Pearl Harbor not among them , and since the Japanese were already committed to Thailand, it seems to have been expected another major operation by them was impossible. Whitish flowers are borne in small round heads in open clusters.

A large tree Calophyllum inophyllum , at home on shores of the Indian and western Pacific Oceans, with shiny, oblong leaves to 20 cm long, white flowers much like orange blossoms, and globose green fruits about 2. The wood is hard and was formerly made into calabashes. Neal —6. Also kamanu , tamanu. PPN tamanu. Smooth, shiny, polished, as of kamani wood. The false kamani or tropical almond Terminalia catappa , a tree from the East Indies grown widely in the tropics for ornament, shade, timber, and edible nuts.

It thrives along sandy shores. An amberfish or rainbow runner Elagatis bipinnulatus , known also as sea salmon. A straggling native shrub Hedyotis fluviatilis var. Gadabout who goes from house to house seeking favors, one who lives on others favors; to do this. To keep on, continue, persevere, last, add a little more. PPN taamau. To drink, especially intoxicants, to eat rare to your health something like prosit. Small taro or sweet potato that serves as food until the major crop matures. Whist card game , trumps; to trump.

To barely hold on to the breath of life, to endure unpleasant conditions in the hope of better to come; flickering of the breath. Thank offering to the gods for abundant crops Malo ; ceremony to purify warriors returned from war. Selective, difficult to please. A portion of the body nail, hair, etc. Unusual, surprising, astonishing. Illegitimate child, since the identity of the father may be unknown. She was thought to have borne numerous children to one husband, then to have gone to Kahiki , later returning as a young woman to bear numerous more children; she did this for many generations; hence her name is synonymous with prolificness.

Puna kameki , cement. McKeown 28— A seashell, same as moa. To go straight ahead; to recline, lie flat; flattened. Recumbent weft of mat, so called because the strands lie horizontally moe ; overcasting stitches that lie neatly in the same direction. To start a fight or quarrel; to interrupt or interfere when others are speaking.

To break, cut, as land. To weave, entwine; to tie loosely, as twigs in a sluice gate. The primrose willow Ludwigia octivalvis syn. Jussiaea suffruticosa var. Its yellow flowers develop singly at the axils of the narrow leaves. Fruiting capsules are cylindrical, many-seeded.

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The plant is used medicinally. See alohalua. A kind of knotweed Polygonum glabrum , air American perennial herb 30 to 90 cm high, with narrow pointed leaves 5 to 25 cm long and many small flowers and fruits borne in terminal panicles. It belongs in the buck wheat family and grows in damp spots. Perhaps Eng. To diminish, decrease, lessen, use sparingly; less developed, decreased.

Crunching sound, thud, thump, as of footsteps; rumbling, clatter; to crackle, crunch; roar, as of approaching rain; rustling, as wind see ex. Tens usually compounded with numbers from three to nine to indicate 30 to Kanaiwa , ninety. Idiom that follows perfective verb marker i and poss. Extremely, beyond compare, without limit in both favorable and pejorative senses. What a lot of work you have to do! Theres no limit to your work! What dreadful things you do [in anger]. How perfectly beautiful! A stroke in lua fighting, for chiefs. A demigod HM — Nominalizer noted in pale , to ward off, and palekana , safety; pill , to cling, and pilikana , relative.

PPN -tanga. His, hers, its a- form; see Gram. Also Sana Cap. Saint in proper names. Relieved after a struggle; feeling of ease or relief after surviving sickness or danger; joy over escape; rest after violent exertion or danger; breathless arrival; refuge; one convalescing or resting after sickness or danger; to convalesce or rest; to find refuge. Wahi kanaaho , sanctuary, place of refuge. Chanted supplicating prayer; chant of eulogy or praise the chanter hesitates at regular intervals to recover breath; tone variation is greater and pitch may be higher than in the olioli ; to pray thus; to sacrifice; dedication.

See similar ex. Star name no data. To diminish, lessen. Are fewer alcoholic drinks being drunk? Rare var. Humped up, bent, stoop-shouldered. Human being, man, person, individual, party, mankind, population; subject, as of a chief; laborer, servant, helper; attendant or retainer in a family often a term of affection or pride ; human sacrifice FS ; physique; human, manly, pregnant, inhabited; Hawaiian; private individual or party, as distinguished from the government.

Singular; cf. A real man! Well done! People have come. He kanaka maoli , a true human, a mortal. PPN tangata. Also Kanada Cap. Canada; Canadian. Adult, mature person; to behave or speak as an adult; to become adult, or to obtain the strength and maturity of an adult. In great numbers, numerous; abundance. To deceive, mislead, feign, act the hypocrite; deceitful.

A sea shell Phasianelidae. Young stage of the hou , a fish. PH Secure, firm, immovable, established, unconquerable. Doubtful, undecided, dubious, uncertain; to doubt, hesitate, distrust; reluctance, doubt, hesitation. Sieve, strainer; to strain, as kava in fibers; to filter, winnow Ruta 3. Writing paper, stationery. To examine one's moral character. Poi strainer, cloth through which poi is strained; strained poi ; to strain, as poi. Stubborn, sulky. Law, code, rule, statute, act, regulation, ordinance, decree, edict; legal; to obey a law; to be prohibited; to learn from experience.

Book of Deuteronomy. Small endemic trees Broussaisia arguta , with large, oval, toothed leaves, in the saxifrage family; the small flowers and berries are arranged in wide, convex clusters. The flowers of one form have bluish-green petals; of another, red, another white, An old belief was that eating the fruit helped in fecundity; the increase of chiefs was compared to a fruiting kanawao. Male, husband, male sweetheart, man; brother-in-law of a woman; male, masculine; to be a husband or brother-in-law of a woman. The leading of the four great Hawaiian gods: see HM 42— PCP Taane. Name of the 27th night of the lunar month.

Name of a sacred star, seen by priests as portending great misfortune, as the death of a chief; perhaps a variable like Mira or Algol, or even a nova. Loss of appetite; to have no appetite; distaste for food. Platonic husband, an old Hawaiian relationship. Saint; holy. Filled to overflowing, as with water. Widowed; dead husband. Elder brother or elder male cousin in the senior line of a woman's husband. To fluff out the feathers, as birds do in hot weather.

Younger brother or younger cousin in the junior line of a woman's husband. Sound or noise of any kind; pitch in music; to sound, cry out, ring, peal, jingle, tinkle, toll, whir, resound, reverberate; roar, rumble, crow, resonance; to strike or tick, of a clock, to sing, as birds; voiced. Strong, hard, tough. To satisfy a need, particularly thirst; to drink. To mourn, grieve, moan, wail, cry; to wander about in grief and affliction. To giggle or laugh softly, as with delight. Adam's apple, larynx, trachea, neck, throat.

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PPN tangisia. PPN tangitangi. Jack-knife, from the sound of opening and shutting rare ; knife made of hoop iron. To mourn in chanting. Dirge, lamentation, chant of mourning, lament; to chant, wail, mourn. Ke Kanikau , The Lamentations Biblical. Name of a star no data. Tolling of a bell, dingdong, sound of clashing objects; to toll, clang, clash. Wahi noho o ke kanikela , consulate. Sudden loud sound, as the report of a rifle or pop of a paper bag, loud cry of a bird; to sound thus. Aged person; aged, so old that one walks with a cane [a favorite metaphor]. Name of a mistlike rain famous at Hilo.

Hilo Hanakahi, i ka ua Kani-lehua song , Hilofs, [land of] chief Hanakahi and of the rain that gives drink to lehua flowers. To recover from sickness And. Striped, streaked, usually crosswise rather than lengthwise, as of a brownish pig or dog with darker brown stripes. Sigh, moan, sorrow, grief, complaint of troubles and pains; to complain, sigh, bemoan; to coo, mourn, as a mourning dove. Large, hard stem, as on a banana bunch, sweet potato, or pandanus fruit; shank of fishook Kam. To harden; to form a tuber, as of sweet potato. Bowl, as for kava; hollow of land, pit rare ; circular. To whack, bang, smack, as of a blow; to receive such a resounding blow.

Kanono akula kou lae , your forehead is smacked with a blow. Kanono kona. To plant, bury; planting, burial. Mea kanu , crops, plants. Kanu papahu wili , to set solidly into the ground by twisting in and then tamping with a post ; lit. PPN tanu. To smooth down, as the wet, ruffled feathers of a bird; to preen; to tamp and smooth.

I'm planting our chili peppers. Funnel formerly made of gourd or coconut shell and used for filling water containers , spout, beaker. Roaring, vibrating sound, as of distant thunder. PPN ngulu. Large physically, both tall and stout; husky. Dart, fish spear, javelin; spike as on tail of a sting ray; skyrocket; firebrand thrown on grass houses in wars; to throw a spear, javelin, etc.

PPN tao. This is probably short for ka mea o ; Gram. Crowd; to go together in a crowd; crowded. To bake in the oven without leaf wrapping, as taro, breadfruit. Dry, arid, bare of vegetation, as of deserts usually not used alone. PCP taa koe ; cf. To hold back, detain, restrain, prevent, repress, withhold, check, try to hold back, control. Style of chanting in which prolonged vowels are cut off with glottal stops; to chant thus. Poetic name for the left hand, left. UL Satyr Bible has kao hihiu.

High, lofty, prominent.

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Red-hot, as fire. Whole, entire; separated, independent, neutral, standing apart, definite. Beam, bar, rail, shelf, railing; wall plate, in a house; stick or beam strengthening a rafter; ledge. Path, trail. Jowl, sagging chin, double chin; sagging part of the neck of an eel. Your, yours a- form, dual: Gram. PEP taa koolua. To press down, squeeze with downward pressure; to massage by pressing firmly with the back of the palm of the hand; to suppress, as a thought or emotion; oppressive, as grief.

Kaomi maluna , to force down, as medicine. Koomi moena , to weigh down a partly finished mat. Hidden meaning, as in Hawaiian poetry; concealed reference, as to a person, thing, or place; words with double meanings that might bring good or bad fortune. Who is being referred to in veiled language in that song? Star appearing in month of Kaulua , remaining visible through the month of Ikiiki. Ghost procession. Perhaps lit. Your, yours a- form, plural: Gram. PEP taa koutou. PCP tapa. To call, term, give a name to. PPN tapa. Edge, border, brim, boundary; side, as of a road; bank, as of.

Also kaba n. Cab a Hebrew measure. To press, squeeze, as coconut flakes for cream; to strain. Name for the nether world, where ghosts of men strove to appease hunger by eating moths and lizards. Also kapa lau. Raised place in the heiau where images and offerings were placed, and where the invisible gods were thought to dwell. To set aside, turn aside, deviate from, eliminate, discard, remove, lay aside, delete, omit, spare, stow away, cancel, be perverted from; to disqualify, suspend.

To slap, pound, as the skin by a masseur; to shatter, as wood Maui. Any kind of remedy for external use, especially a ball or pad of medicinal herbs for rubbing on the skin; poultice. Sackcloth, as worn by mourners in the Bible Kin. Growing luxuriantly and thriftily, lush, flourishing. One-sided, crooked, lopsided, sideways; bent, askew; biased, partial to one side; to show favoritism. Border of the sea, seashore, seaside, coast; sometimes interpreted as west or komohana.

PCP tapatai. Brief shower, scattered drops used with ua , rain. Plural of kapa 3; human crotch; kilu quoit shots that stray from the mark. PPN tapatapa. Inoa kapakapa , nickname, fictitious name, pet name, pen name, alias, assumed name. Well-off, enjoyable. Kapakapa ka nohona , prosperous condition. To splash, as raindrops on water. Overwhelmed, destroyed. Printing, stamping, blot, daub, to stain; to smear, smudge, blot, daub, dab, stain, spot; to paint or print a design, as on tapa; smudged, blurred; to spread as butter on bread.

To daub with poi. Palpitating, as in fear or joy; trembling, twitching, fluttering, throbbing; waving; quivering, as a leaf in the wind; trilling, as r's in some languages. Kapalili ka houpo , the heart is thrilled. Whirring, as of quail taking flight; buzzing; roaring, as of an airplane; crackling, as of a fire; to whiz. Manu kapalulu , quail. Holo kapalulu , to zoom. A slender native plant Phyllostegia grandiflora in the mint family, bearing paired ovate leaves and white flowers 2.

Voracious in appetite, destructive. Rhythmic tapping of canoe side with a paddle to drive fish into a net; to do so. To do in unison, as of crowning cocks; all together. A variety of sweet potato no data. Lined quilt that is not padded, formerly used as a top sheet old-time Hawaiians did not put a bottom sheet on top or vice versa, due to strict taboos concerning body contact. Splashing, spattering, as fish being driven into a net; fluttering, flapping. To seize and hold a criminal; to knock down helter-skelter; to bring false accusation against an innocent person.

PCP taapeka. Barrier made of crossed sticks; barrier to progress; to cross one over another. To go on hands and knees before high royalty; to act humbly. Soft, beguiling, gentle, quiet; soft and beguiling words. Mele 5. Kind of malo dyed one color on one side, and another color on the other side the wind often blows and exposes [ kapeke ] the color on the reverse side. Exposed, revealed; askew, out of joint; to slip to one side or out of joint, to miss in one's aim.

To walk unsteadily, totter; insecure, unsteady. Quarrelsome, disagreeable, complaining, fault-finding.

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To splash the feet in the water, as in scaring fish; the person who splashes thus. Name of an introduced vine, the seeds of which are strung as leis, perhaps lit. To sprinkle, as with salt; to salt; to scatter, as sand or salt. Curly; person with curly hair, believed to be strong and hence a good warrior Malo Cabbage Brassica oleracea var. Brussels sprouts Brassica oleracea var. Same as kalipalaoa , cauliflower. To build, put together, put on as glasses , fit together, set as precious stones , mend, fix, repair, shingle, join, plaster, unite, attach blame, shoe as a horse.

PCP taapili. Shipbuilding; shipbuilder, shipwright; to repair ships. PCP taapilipili. Process of adding on canoe parts after the hull has been carved and rubbed smooth; to do so. Bird snare made by bending a sapling over and attaching a baited noose; the bird enters, dislodges a weight, the sapling straightens up and the noose tightens and catches the bird; to catch in such a snare. To bind, wrap, bandage. Rare , Perhaps PCP taapola. Mysterious, unfathomable. Taboo, prohibition; special privilege or exemption from ordinary taboo; sacredness; prohibited, forbidden; sacred, holy, consecrated; no trespassing, keep out.

Fireplace, stove, furnace, heater, hearth; pan of a musket or gun; censer for sacrifice. Name of a star, perhaps the same as Ka-nuku-o-ka-puahi. Sole of the foot, footprint, footstep, tread, track; foot in measurement; paw of an animal. PCP tapuwae. Design on tapa beater consisting of a series of Gothic arches. A lua fighting stroke, reserved for chiefs. See Kana 5. PCP ta a pusi. The many taboos inherited from chiefly ancestors or from the gods; person with many taboos. A butterfly fish, Chaetodon trifasciatus. A taboo on wearing another's clothing unless the relationship was very close.

Ceremonial sea bath for purification, purification by sea water, as after contact with a corpse or by women after menstruation. Dignity, regal appearance, noble bearing, entitled to respect and reverence, difficult of access because of rank, dignity, and station. PPN taputapu. A taboo requiring lesser persons to keep their distance from a chief. Same as pukupuku ; shrunken object. Overripe, black or spotted, as a banana skin; fat, as a plover. Careless, slovenly, unclean, gross, slipshod, untidy, disgusting, unkempt.

Taboo requiring everyone to sit in the presence of a chief, or when his food container, bath water, and other articles were carried by. A cry proclaiming a taboo on the approach of a sacred personage or as part of a ceremony; the announcer of this taboo Kep. The taboo is on, prostrate!

Taboo with the privilege of killing people. Taboo of wohi chiefs, including exemption from the prostration taboo. To place, put, hang, suspend, affix, gird on; to set, settle, perch, alight, rest, pose; to enact, impose, or pass, as a law; to levy, as a tax; to ride on or mount, as on a horse or in a car; to board, mount, get in or on; to rise up, appear, as the moon; to place in sacrifice, as a pig; to come to rest, as the setting sun; to arrive, come to pass; to hang up, as a telephone receiver. Kau ka maka , to set the eyes upon, as with desire or affection; to feast the eyes upon, to yearn to see Ka-lei-kau-maka name , beloved child to be looked upon with pride and love.

Kau ka makani , the wind blows. Kau mai i luna , to appear above. Kau ka weli FS 93 , full of fear. Period of time, lifetime; any season, especially summer; session of a legislature; term, semester; time of late night before dawn Kep. See kaukau 1. PPN tau. Wooden handle, as on stone chisels; perch; pole raised longitudinally over a canoe in stormy weather, on which mats were placed for protection.

A method of feeding children or high-born persons as a special honor; the recipient held back his head and opened his mouth; the morsel of poi was dropped into his mouth; much enjoyed by children as a game. Reason, cause. Name of a star in the northern sky that served as guide to mariners. Have you seen our pigs? PCP tau. Oh, so beautiful! How very delicious! Kau is sometimes replaced by tau. Your, yours singular, a- form; see Gram. My, mine a- form; see Gram.

Hesitation, fear. PPN -taku. PNP Takuu. War, battle; army, war party; to make war, fight. Outcast, pariah, slave, untouchable, menial; a caste which lived apart and was drawn on for human sacrifices these traditional meanings carried great opprobrium. Later it was used in the Bible and in formal correspondence to translate servant. You are an outcast to be killed! I'll kill you. To detain, gently request to remain. We, us dual, inclusive. Come to me. Warm greetings [one person to another, as at the beginning of a letter]!

To look or move straight ahead: to gaze. What are you gazing at? Lele kauaheahe i luna lilo loa , to fly on and on, way far up. Gentle, as a breeze; light. A boisterous person who speaks loudly and gestures wildly, making a spectacle of himself. To carry a person supported by arms over the shoulders of two persons, as one drunk or sick, or for one person to half carry and half drag another person. The southern sky where the star Lipo may be seen; the rising of the star Lipo.

Variants are kauana Lepo , kauana Lewa , and kauana Liolio-iWawau. A star, possibly Sirius. This star was used by navigators and fishermen. A single generation from father to son. A strong mountain wind, often destructive, at Lahaina, Maui. To dig up the past, to review the past. To move up and down as the waves, or as in dancing; to undulate. Group of houses comprising a Hawaiian home, formerly consisting of men's eating house, women's eating house, sleeping house, cook-house, canoe house, etc.

Term was later used even if the home included but a single house, and is sometimes used for hamlet or settlement. It is used without an article. Kanaka hele i kauhale , a person who goes from house to house; to gad. Tangled, snarled, of vines. Name of an unknown lazy man. To open, unfold, as a tapa; to expand, as a flower in bloom. To pursue in order to harm, chase, to run after, run and fetch. State of pregnancy. Spelling, orthography; to write down, note. Gathering of fish in schools near the surface of the sea. A native tree in the buckthorn family Alphitonia ponderosa , found on the six main Hawaiian islands, with alternating leaves, oblong to narrow and woolly below; its hard wood was used for spears and mallets.

Its hard wood was valued for spears and tools, and was not reputed to be poisonous. Taboo ceremony consecrating a temple; ceremonial readorning of images with feathers. A kind of black, tough sugar cane. Temple ceremonies, during which images were readorned with feathers. To loiter about the door of a house as though desiring food gifts; one who does so. Standing alone, solitary, by oneself, lone; persevering, singleness of purpose, regularity. How many people depend on you for livelihood?

Cucumber Cucumis sativus , introduced. Listed in Ellis , p. Chant of lamentation, as addressing the dead directly; to advise, admonish, especially in a kindly or affectionate manner; to weigh in the mind, deliberate, reason with Hal. PNP tautau. To slow down, delay, procrastinate, hesitate, linger; inhibited, checked; reluctance. At the time, Juno was about 9, miles 15, kilometers from the planet's cloud tops, above a northern latitude of 56 degrees.

The Juno probe reached Jupiter in after a five-year, 1. The Juno probe reached Jupiter on July 4, , after a five-year, 1. Following a successful braking manoeuvre, it entered into a long polar orbit flying to within 3, miles 5, km of the planet's swirling cloud tops. The probe skimmed to within just 2, miles 4, km of the planet's clouds once a fortnight - too close to provide global coverage in a single image. No previous spacecraft has orbited so close to Jupiter, although two others have been sent plunging to their destruction through its atmosphere.

To complete its risky mission Juno survived a circuit-frying radiation storm generated by Jupiter's powerful magnetic field. The maelstrom of high energy particles travelling at nearly the speed of light is the harshest radiation environment in the Solar System. To cope with the conditions, the spacecraft was protected with special radiation-hardened wiring and sensor shielding. Its all-important 'brain' - the spacecraft's flight computer - was housed in an armoured vault made of titanium and weighing almost pounds kg. The craft is expected to study the composition of the planet's atmosphere until The views expressed in the contents above are those of our users and do not necessarily reflect the views of MailOnline.

Scientists are closer than ever to measuring the mass of a neutrino after year experiment - shedding light on the early universe. Scroll down for video. Share this article Share. Share or comment on this article: NASA scientist reveals the eerie shadow cast on Jupiter's swirling surface by its moon Io e-mail Comments 49 Share what you think. View all. More top stories. Bing Site Web Enter search term: Search. Download our iPhone app Download our Android app. Today's headlines Most Read A micro chip off the old block!