Southern Unionist Pamphlets and the Civil War

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Letter, 3 May , from Miller G. Bell ca. Benjamin, Judah P. Letter, 25 March Letter, 25 March , from Judah P. Benjamin , Richmond, Virginia, to A. Stuart , Staunton, Virginia, requesting that Stuart come to Richmond as soon as possible for a conference with Jefferson Davis Bennett, C. Receipts, 4 March Receipts, 4 March , of Coleman D. Receipt, 4 March Receipt, 4 March , issued by C. Bennett , sheriff of Pittsylvania County, Virginia, for the hire of Ceaser [sic] and Len, slaves of Samuel Hairston for work on fortifications in the department.

Payment ordered by Colonel W. Stevens Bennett, Edgar B. Letter, 13 November Letter, 13 November , from Edgar B. He also notes that General William Sherman has captured Atlanta, Georgia, and is moving towards Charleston, South Carolina, and adds that it is the job of the army in front of Petersburg to occupy Robert E. Lee's army so that it cannot move against Sherman.

He adds that he is disappointed in the presidential election. Includes ribbon bits. Bennett, Risden Tyler. Speech, 10 May Berkeley family. Accession , Miscellaneous Reel 2. Papers, , of the Berkeley family of Aldie, Loudoun County, Virginia, containing correspondence pertaining to the following members of the Berkeley family: Lewis Berkeley, his sons, Edmund and William N.

Berkeley, and Francis L. Other correspondents include Thomas Griffin, A. Ramsey, C. Smith, George G. Thompson, P. Thompson, Beverley Tucker, and William Waller. The letters are mostly of a personal nature, discusssing college life, family news, farming, politics, and the Civil War. Berlin, Ira, editor. Records of southern plantations from emancipation to the great migration.

Collection consists of papers and records of postbellum tobacco and cotton plantations in North Carolina and Virginia, dating and containing personal and family correspondence, store account books, rental account books, farm ledgers, legal records, cash books, and a diary. Contains information on the credit system that developed following the war, postbellum store owners and the accounts of freedmen, the Freedmen's Bureau, the southern labor system including African American wage labor, sharecroppers, the African American experience following the Civil War, African American politicians, slavery, abolitionism and abolitionists, and Civil War, Reconstruction and New South politics.

Bernard, D. Order, 2 February Copy of Special Order No. Bernard, George S. Papers, , no date. Papers, and no date, of George S. Bernard of Petersburg, Virginia, consisting of letters, , from Pattie B. Cowles of Petersburg to Bernard while serving in the Petersburg Rifles later Company E, 12th Virginia Infantry stationed in Norfolk, Virginia, describing life in Petersburg in the early days of the Civil War; providing social and family news and gossip; declaring the devotion of the women of Petersburg to the cause and to the men who have left to fight; commenting on Alabama and South Carolina troops which have passed through Petersburg; and stating that President Jefferson Davis passed through Petersburg.

Papers also include an undated speech praising the men and women of the Confederacy and their continuing contributions. Betts, Luther. Papers of Luther Betts of the 9th Virginia Cavalry Regiment, including an order, 6 March , for cavalry detail, and parole, 2 May Beverley, Jane Eliza Carter. Includes information on Civil War action in the surrounding area, and her personal recollections of General Robert E.

Lee These reminiscences were transcribed by Robert Beverley Herbert b. Bevier, Isaac. Letter, 5 July Letter, 5 July , from Isaac Bevier b. He discusses the fighting and a flag that his regiment captured as well as news of camp life, including some souvenirs he and others have picked up. Letter, 15 September Letter, 15 September , from Isaac Bevier of Company E, 44th New York Infantry, to his parents detailing the second battle of Manassas Bull Run , his wounding, and his stay in the hospital including work as a nurse.

He also comments on the campaigning leading up to the battle of Antietam. Also includes a casualty list for the 44th New York. Beville, Ella. Notebook, Hardaway d. Bidgood, Joseph Virginius. Black concerning the War of military record of Obadiah Hawkins ca. Billingsly, Joseph. Letters, December Billingsly outlines his military duties, describes the condition of his winter quarters, and discusses the weather. Billingsly also tells of washing clothes on Christmas Day and asks about his family.

Bills, George. Letter, 27 April Letter, 27 April , from George Bills d. He states that the army is raising breastworks and that sharpshooters fire at anyone who shows his head. Bills writes that soldiers often talk about when they will be heading home and that he expects they will be paid soon.

Bills also sends Calvin a power of attorney and some apple tree seeds. He asks Calvin to send a fine comb because of lice and ticks. There is also a transcript. Binford, William F. Autograph collection, Autograph collection, , of William F. Binford, Jr. Collection contains signatures of prominent Confederate and Union military figures from letters, military records, legal documents, receipts, as well as clipped signatures.

Also included is published biographical information for some of the individuals. Binns family. In part, photostats. Papers include birth and marriage information; a list of slaves owned by various family members; a letter from Charles H. Binns, Jr. Birdsong, James C. Reminiscences of Civil War service, no date.

Reminiscences of Civil War service by James C. Birdsong also mentions his being a prisoner of war. Blackford, Benjamin Lewis. Sketchbook, Accession c. In part photographs and negatives. Sketchbook, , of Benjamin Lewis Blackford of Lynchburg, Virginia, containing sketches of Spotsylvania County, Virginia, the ruins of Chancellorsville, Virginia, soldiers, and other landscapes. Blackford, William Willis. Memoirs: First and Last, or Battles in Virginia. Memoirs of William Willis Blackford entitled "First and Last, or Battles in Virginia," are a typed transcript that detail, chronologically by campaign, the exploits of Blackford while serving as a cavalry officer with the 1st Virginia Cavalry Regiment under Jeb Stuart and as an officer with the Engineer Corps.

These memoirs are very anecdotal, and were published in as War Years With Jeb Stuart reprinted Blackington, R. Letter, 4 November Letter, 4 November , from R. Blackington of Company I, 20th Maine Infantry, in Culpeper County, Virginia, to his mother Louisa Blackington detailing how the regiment stripped homes for items to use in camp, providing other news, and asking for stockings that he can sell. Blair, Luther R. Parole, 8 May Parole, 8 May , of Luther R.

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Fletcher, Danville, Virginia. Blair, William B. Accession x. Letter, 9 June , from William Barrett Blair b. Blaisdell, George. Letter, 26 October Blanchard, Henry T. Letter, 9 November , from Henry T. Blanchard writes about recent battles with the enemy, including those at Brandy Station and Rappahannock Station, as well as the taking of prisoners, the location of various troops, and the cold weather. Letter, 27 August Letter, 27 August , from Henry T. Blanchard also adds a postscript to his brother. Bland County Va. Bland County, Virginia, Pleas, Board of Military Exemption Minutes and Board of Supervisors Minute Book, bulk , document specific types of records as noted related to county court orders such as the appointments of various Constitutional officers of the county and exemption board rulings, , related to permanent bodily infirmity during the Civil War years when paper was scarce.

Pages for these two sections are not numbered. There are loose papers in this section between pages and Blanvelt, William L. Letter, 28 December Letter, 28 December , from William L. Blanvelt, Lewinsville, Fairfax County, Virginia, to his brother. Topics include a recent battle at Dranesville Fairfax County , weather, Christmas, and views on the war. The letter was written on letterhead illustrated with a portrait of General McClellan. Bledsoe family. Papers, , of the Bledsoe family of Fentress County, Tennessee; the Hinds family of Barren County, Kentucky; and the Conlee family of Washington County, Illinois; as well as from members of the families who settled in other parts of Tennessee and Kentucky and settled in California and Iowa.

Letters consist mainly of social and family news of the three families. Of particular interest are letters, , from William M. Bledsoe to his wife Sarah Hinds Bledsoe b. Hinds and James M. Bliss, Lyman B. Letter, 16 July Letter, 16 July , from Lyman B. Bliss b. Bliss comments that he was not at the fight because of his health, which he elaborates on. He also mentions his brother Samuel ca. Board, Francis Howard. Letter, 11 February Dearing, and troop movements. Bock, Linda Wilkinson. In part Photocopies.


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Bock ; Bock and Wilkinson families; William L. Includes papers of William Fanning Wilkinson concerning the Civil War and his loyalty oath, and papers concerning the Sons of Confederate Veterans. Boggs family. Includes a biographical sketch of Francis Makemie ca. Compiled by Myra Boggs with assistance from Dorothy Bonniwell.

Boggs, F. Letter, 31 March Letter, 31 March , from F. Hays Otey , Captain of Otey's Artillery Company, Danville, Virginia, regarding the placement of artillery for the defenses of Danville without Boggs' orders, and that the guns are not to be positioned anywhere until there is a necessity. Includes a note, 1 April , from Colonel R. Withers , commanding at Danville, stating that he had ordered the guns placed and they could not be moved. Boisseau, Mary Leigh. Abstracts of the proceedings of the Board of Exemption for Pittsylvania County, Virginia, in , compiled by Mary Leigh Boisseau of Danville, Virginia, in , consisting abstracts of the minutes of the Pittsylvania County Board of Exemptions concerning the evaluation of applications of soldiers for discharge from military duty.

Abstracts list the name of the soldier, application disposition approved or rejected , and cause, if approved. There are handwritten corrections made by the compiler. Bolton, James. Medical daybook, Daybook, 24 October January , of James Bolton consisting of a daily record of patients seen, both private and military, often including rank, age, or address. Other sections of the book include more detailed notes of surgery and other treatments, a record of stimulants administered, vaccination procedures and records, and some medicinal preparations. Bond, Herbert G.

Bond and his sister-in-law Julia F. Pierce Bond of Dummerston, Windham County, Vermont, describing camp life, drilling, rations, and picket duty. Bond describes the Virginia countryside, including a description of the Fairfax County court house. He mentions Generals Ambrose Burnside and E. Stoughton , as well the Confederate army. He also mentions the troops playing baseball. Booth, Cyrus Monroe. Letter, 12 January Letter, 12 January , from Cyrus Monroe Booth of Company E, 27th New York Regiment, to his sister Emma informing her that he is sending her a picture of him, and describing the return to the regiment of 35 men captured at the first battle of Manassas Bull Run.

He details the reception for them and sketches how banners and wreaths were hung to celebrate their return. Boothe family. Papers, , of the Booth family of Suffolk, Virginia, consisting of a flyleaf from an undesignated book, ; an invoice, 7 April , for a coffin bought by Nathaniel Boothe, for his wife, in Suffolk, Virginia; and a receipt, 1 May , for items impressed from Boothe by Captain T. Bosher, Judson S.

Collection, Papers, , collected by Mrs. Judson S. Westmore to William D. Clarissa H. Robins for a fee for entering land transferred; a receipt, 8 February [? Gordon to William D. Robins; an agreement, 19 March , Alexander R. Bell, John S. Byers, and Richard H. Dudley with David B. Bell with Harrison T. Bolen, ; a letter, 26 March , from E. Galt of Lynchburg to "Arthur", commenting on military affairs and discussing local and family news. Bosworth family. Papers, , of the Bosworth family of Randolph County, West Virginia, consisting of letters written to and from Squire Newton Bosworth while he was serving in the 31st Virginia Infantry during the Civil War.

There are also letters written to and from his father Dr. Squire Bosworth Subjects of the letters written by Squire Newton Bosworth include his opinions of deserters, news of fellow soldiers and residents of Randolph County, troop movements, and the activities of his father. Also included in this collection is a forage receipt, as well as poetry written by Squire Bosworth while being held in prison. Papers, , of the Bosworth family of Randolph County, West Virginia, consisting of receipts, , , for J.

Barrett of Christian County, Illinois, attacking Bosworth for his Confederate sympathies, this being the letter mentioned by Joshua and Squire Bosworth. Bosworth, James. Botetourt County Va. Minutes of the Provisional Committee, Most petitions were made on the grounds of permanent bodily infirmity or having furnished a substitute.

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Most all statements about applications for exemption state the regiment to which the requestor was drafted to serve. Two of the meetings give names of free male negroes who were drafted into the Confederate States Quartermaster department to work on defenses in the New River District or with the Army of South Westerly Virginia.

The final pages of the volume contain information more likely to be found in a court minute or order book and dates from and Barger vs. Polly Barger etc. Botts, John Minor. Cist of Cincinnati, Ohio, containing correspondence stating that James Patton Preston is still alive and living in Montgomery County, Virginia, but that Thomas Mann Randolph is deceased.

There are four newspaper clippings on the inside of the letter concerning Botts during the Civil War, when he under suspicion for his Unionist sentiments. Also includes a portrait of Botts and a brief biographical sketch. Bouldin, William D. Papers, Accession Includes letters written by and to Bouldin while he was being held prisoner at Point Lookout, Maryland, during the Civil War. Majority of the collection is correspondence between him, after he settled in Kentucky, and his sisters, who either remained in Virginia or also moved to Kentucky.

Also contained in the collection is information on the 18th Virginia Infantry, including battles fought, numbers of troops involved, killed in action, and wounded, and a list of officers. Boulware, James Richmond. There are also transcripts of two letters written by Boulware to his brother-in-law William Stokes who had married Eliza Boulware discussing Confederate military activities around Franklin, Virginia, in March , and around Knoxville, Tennessee, in December Bouton, George.

Letters, , of George Bouton ca. Collection includes typescript copies.

Letters, , from George Bouton ca. Bowden, Henry M. Papers, , of Henry M. Bowden of James City County and Norfolk, Virginia, including accounts, appointments, correspondence, election results, oath of allegiance, and passes. Most of the letters written by Bowden relate to the hardships he endured by staying loyal to the United States government and his efforts to obtain employment and monetary reparations for lost property. Includes a letter, 31 April , from his daughter, Alice Bowden, regarding life in Williamsburg and attitudes of neighbors towards the family and a statement from Thomas Kemper, , about rental property in Norfolk; a letter, 3 March , from W.

Chase, Secretary of the Treasury, asking for a government appointment; and appointments and letters, , to and from Union general Benjamin F. Butler in which he obtained a post of financial clerk for the Provost Marshal. Also of note is a letter, 11 October , to General Howard from Bowden, asking for reparations for his home and property lost.

Bowden, L. Telegram, 8[? United States military telegram, 8[? Telegraph states that Mrs. Piggot[t], her family, and her slaves have been escorted to Richmond, Virginia. Two or three slaves have escaped to Union lines. Captain Faith may have been Anderson Faith of the 5th Pennsylvania Cavalry, which was stationed in the area. Bowles, John R. Letter, 6 January Letter, 6 January , from John R.

Bowles of Company F, 6th Virginia Cavalry, to his mother and sisters living in Baltimore, Maryland, stating that he had been given a furlough to acquire horses for the company and regiment, that he had been able to visit relatives in Botetourt County, Virginia, and sending news of them home. Bowles comments on the battle of Gettysburg. He also asks how his family and friends in Baltimore are doing and describes some aspects of life as a soldier. Bowling, William H. Letters, , Inkjet and Xerox copies. Letters, and , from Private William H. Letter, 2 August , from Culpeper Court House, Virginia, discusses military rations, a possible furlough, and the progress of the war.

Bowling also directs his wife, Lucretia, on what type of crop to plant. Letter, 19 March , from a camp near Petersburg, Virginia, comments again on a lack of rations for the men and a plan by the military to take food stores from civilians to provide for soldiers. Bowling also discusses the lack of feed for his horse and the need for another mount. Bowling anticipates the upcoming battle of Petersburg and notes troop desertions are a problem. He also mentions news of General William T.

Bowman, Henry. Letter, 20 November Burnside of the command of the Army of the Potomac and offering opinions on the leadership skills of McClelland and Burnside. Bowman also relates stories of his own encounters with Burnside. Other topics include the recent election of John Albion Andrew as governor of Massachusetts, camp life, and health. Boyd, A. Letter, 10 October He also expresses his thoughts about possibly leaving Virginia. Boyer, John. Letter, 7 February Boyer, regarding family, health of friends and family in New Market, Virginia, and Union raids on the mail service.

Boyes, Harrison H. Letter, 22 July Letter, 22 July , from Harrison H. Boyes adds that the 2nd Iowa and 2nd Michigan are the best cavalry units in the western Union army. Boyes also asks for news and states that Union prospects are gloomy, mainly due to the defeat of George B. Boyle, Cornelius. Military pass, 30 August Also includes an envelope which contained the pass. Bozworth, James. Letter, 14 January Letter, 14 January [], from James Bozworth [Bosworth] , Company D, 17th Connecticut Infantry, at Stafford Court House, Virginia, to Frank Sherwood, Bridgeport, Connecticut, complaining about the quality and price of tobacco and whiskey sold to soldiers, criticizing Ambrose Burnside and the officer corps, while wishing George McClellan were back in command of the army.

Boswoth is even critical of the officers of the regiment. Bradley, John A. Petition, 28 March Petition, 28 March , from John A. Bradley b. Reverse contain a note from Dr. John W.

Sale ca. Bradshaw, Herbert Clarence.

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Papers, , of Herbert Clarence Bradshaw of Prince Edward County, Virginia, and Durham, North Carolina, consisting of articles, bulletins, clippings, correspondence, magazines maps, notes, pamphlets, photographs, and other materials used by Bradshaw to write his History of Prince Edward County and History of Hampden-Sydney College, vol. Bragg, Robert Richard. Reminiscences of Confederate service , 9 May Reminiscences, 9 May , of Robert Richard Bragg b. Bragg, Thomas.

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A State Divided: Delaware During the Civil War

Diary, , of Thomas Bragg , United States Senator and Confederate Attorney-General containing detailed observations and opinions of the political events leading up to and during the Civil War. While U. Senator, Bragg comments on the actions and concerns of both Democrats and Republicans with regards to the sectional differences and the problems of seceeding states.

While attorney general, Bragg gives his opininon about the actions of President Davis, the Cabinet and the Confederate Senate. He continues to comment on the war, its military aspects, and its effect on the civilian population after his retirement to Petersburg, Virginia. Brant, John B. Letter, 21 December Letter, 21 December , from John B. Brant ca. He writes that he misses his mother and hopes to see her after the war. He informs her of where he lives and his family.

Contesting secession: Parson Brownlow and the rhetoric of proslavery unionism, 1860-1861

Brant adds that he has met and talked with his brother Levi Brant. Brent, Martha Buxton Porter. Photocopies and photostats negative. Porter career in the Confederate States of America Navy, including his work on rebuilding the Merrimack-Virginia Frigate, the capture and evacuation of Richmond, Virginia in , relationships between the Union soldiers and Richmond citizens after the war, and her marriage to Frank Pierce Brent d. Also includes notes and a drawing of the Merrimack by John Porter and a copy of his parole. Brent, R. Rosters of ex-Confederate soldiers and sailors living in Northumberland County, Virginia, Rosters compiled in by R.

Brent, Commissioner of the Revenue under provisions of Act of 6 March , of ex-Confederate soldiers and sailors living in Northumberland County, Virginia, containing age in , rank and company during the Civil War, regiment, service, and remarks. Apparently there are no ex-Confederate sailors listed on these rosters.

Bridges, C. Letter, 25 March , from Major General C. Bridges, Peter Speech, 23 October Briscoe family. Papers, bulk: Accession Goodloe ca. Papers also contain letters from Evie Goodloe to William Briscoe during their courtship and their marriage, and correspondence from Elizabeth Goodloe ca. Duerson Goodloe b. Also letters to and from Evie Briscoe from other relatives and friends. Papers also include accounts and account book, , of Frederick A.

Broaddus, William F. Diary, , of William F. Broaddus of Fredericksburg and Charlottesville, Virginia, containing entries covering his arrest and incarceration in Old Capitol by the Union army during the Civil War. His entries contain descriptions of his fellow prisoners including Belle Boyd Broaddus chronicles his efforts to obtain freedom for himself and many of his neighbors. He also details his efforts to minister to wounded soldiers after his release. Also includes entries covering his efforts to minister during the war to his Baptist congregations in Fredericksburg.

His entries also contain news about various battles and events. Brock, Robert Alonzo. The former circuit-rider could "pile up epithets" with the best of them, and this talent may well have discouraged scholars from taking his ideas seriously. Second, very little of Brownlow's personal papers survive, which prevents any serious analysis of his private world and necessitates an almost total reliance on his polemical newspaper.

Finally, there is the long-standing marginalization of Southern Appalachia that traditionally has characterized the grand narrative histories of the Confederacy. Happily, over the last decade or so scholars have begun to turn their attention to the Civil War in Appalachia and have produced a number of impressive monographs on this long-ignored region. A comparison with the small body of older literature on William Brownlow is instructive. An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page.

If the problem persists, please try again in a little while. Read preview. Common types of primary sources include works of literature, historical documents, original philosophical writings, and religious texts. There was no shortage of enthusiasm as young men clamored to join the army in That was where the excitement was, and they were all volunteers. The decision was made to keep the small regular army intact; its officers could however join the temporary new volunteer army that was formed, expecting their experience would lead to rapid promotions.

The problem with volunteering was a serious lack of planning, leadership and organization at the highest levels. Washington called on the states for troops and every northern governor set about raising and equipping regiments, with the bills sent to the War Department. The men could elect the junior officers, while the governor appointed the senior officers, and Lincoln appointed the generals. Typically politicians used their local organizations to raise troops, and were in line if healthy enough to become colonel. The problem was that the War Department, under the disorganized leadership of Simon Cameron also authorized local and private groups to raise regiments.

The result was widespread confusion and delay. Pennsylvania for example had acute problems. When Washington called for ten more regiments, enough men volunteered to form thirty. However they were scattered among seventy different new units, none of which was a complete regiment. Not until Washington approved gubernatorial control of all new units was the problem resolved. Allan Nevins is particularly scathing in his analysis: "A President more exact, systematic and vigilant than Lincoln, a Secretary more alert and clearheaded than Cameron, would have prevented these difficulties.

By the end of , soldiers were drilling in Union camps. The first wave in spring was called up for only 90 days, then went home or reenlisted. Later waves enlisted for three years. They spent their time drilling. The combat in the first year, though strategically important, involved relatively small forces and few casualties. Sickness was a much more serious cause of hospitalization or death. In the first few months men wore low quality uniforms made of "shoddy" but by fall sturdy wool uniforms—in blue—were standard.

The nation's factories were converted to produce the rifles, cannon, wagons, tents, telegraph sets and the myriad other special items the army needed. While business had been slow or depressed in spring because of war fears and Southern boycotts, by fall business was hiring again, offering young men jobs that were an alternative way to help win the war. Nonpartisanship was the rule in the first year, but by summer many Democrats had stopped supporting the war effort and volunteering fell off sharply in their strongholds. The calls for more and more soldiers continued, so states and localities responded by offering cash bonuses.

By a draft law was in effect, but few men actually were drafted and served, since it was designed to get them to volunteer or hire a substitute. Others hid away or left the country. With the Emancipation proclamation taking effect in January , localities could meet their draft quota by sponsoring regiments of ex-slaves organized in the South. Michigan was especially eager to send thousands of volunteers.

However by the casualties were mounting and the war was increasingly focused on freeing the slaves in addition to preserving the Union. Copperhead Democrats called the war a failure, and it became more and more a partisan Republican effort. Perman says historians are of two minds on why millions of men seemed so eager to fight, suffer and die over four years:. More soldiers died of disease than in battle, and even larger numbers were temporarily incapacitated by wounds, disease and accidents.

The Union responded by building army hospitals in every state. The hygiene of the camps was poor, especially at the beginning of the war when men who had seldom been far from home were brought together for training with thousands of strangers. First came epidemics of the childhood diseases of chicken pox, mumps, whooping cough, and, especially, measles.

Operations in the South meant a dangerous and new disease environment, bringing diarrhea, dysentery, typhoid fever, and malaria. There were no antibiotics, so the surgeons prescribed coffee, whiskey, and quinine. Harsh weather; bad water; inadequate shelter in winter quarters; poor policing of camps; and dirty camp hospitals took their toll. What was different in the Union was the emergence of skilled, well-funded medical organizers who rook proactive action, especially in the much enlarged United States Army Medical Department, [19] and the United States Sanitary Commission , a new private agency.

Systematic funding appeals raised public consciousness, as well as millions of dollars. Many thousands of volunteers worked in the hospitals and rest homes, most famously poet Walt Whitman. Frederick Law Olmstead , a famous landscape architect, was the highly efficient executive director of the Sanitary Commission. States could use their own tax money to support their troops as Ohio did. Following the unexpected carnage at the battle of Shiloh in April , it send 3 steamboats to the scene as floating hospitals with doctors, nurses and medical supplies.

The state fleet expanded to eleven hospital ships. The state also set up 12 local offices in main transportation nodes to help Ohio soldiers moving back and forth. The Christian Commission comprised volunteers who aided chaplains in many ways. In the long run the wartime experiences of the numerous commissions modernized public welfare, and set the stage for large—scale community philanthropy in America based on fund raising campaigns and private donations.

For example, Mary Livermore She argued that women needed more education and job opportunities to help them fulfill their role of serving others. A senior surgeon in the war, Billings built two of the world's most important libraries, Library of the Surgeon General's Office now the National Library of Medicine and the New York Public Library; he also figured out how to mechanically analyze data by turning it into numbers and punching onto the computer punch card as developed by his student Herman Hollerith.

Discontent with the draft law led to riots in several cities and in rural areas as well, By far the most important were the New York City draft riots of July 13 to July 16, Initially focused on the draft, the protests quickly expanded into violent attacks on blacks in New York City, with many killed on the streets. Small-scale riots broke out in ethnic German and Irish districts, and in areas along the Ohio River with many Copperheads.

Holmes County, Ohio was an isolated parochial areas dominated by Pennsylvania Dutch and some recent German immigrants. It was a Democratic stronghold and few men dared speak out in favor of conscription. Local politicians denounced Lincoln and Congress as despotic, seeing the draft law as a violation of their local autonomy. In June , small scale disturbance broke out; they ended when the Army sent in armed units. The Union economy grew and prospered during the war while fielding a very large army and navy.

The Republicans in Washington had a Whiggish vision of an industrial nation, with great cities, efficient factories, productive farms, national banks, and high speed rail links. The South had resisted policies such as tariffs to promote industry and homestead laws to promote farming because slavery would not benefit; with the South gone, and Northern Democrats very weak in Congress, the Republicans enacted their legislation.

Northern Nationalists and Southern Unionists

At the same time they passed new taxes to pay for part of the war, and issued large amounts of bonds to pay for the most of the rest. The remainder can be charged to inflation. They wrote an elaborate program of economic modernization that had the dual purpose of winning the war and permanently transforming the economy. In the Treasury was a small operation that funded the small-scale operations of the government through the low tariff and land sales. Chase showed unusual ingenuity in financing the war without crippling the economy.

The government paid for supplies in real money, which encouraged people to sell to the government regardless of their politics. By contrast the Confederacy gave paper promissory notes when it seized property, so that even loyal Confederates would hide their horses and mules rather than sell them for dubious paper.

Overall the Northern financial system was highly successful in raising money and turning patriotism into profit, while the Confederate system impoverished its patriots. Second came much higher tariffs, through several Morrill tariff laws. Third came the nation's first income tax; only the wealthy paid and it was repealed at war's end. Apart from taxes, the second major source was government bonds. For the first time bonds in small denominations were sold directly to the people, with publicity and patriotism as key factors, as designed by banker Jay Cooke. State banks lost their power to issue banknotes.

Only national banks could do that, and Chase made it easy to become a national bank; it involved buying and holding federal bonds and financiers rushed to open these banks. Chase numbered them, so that the first one in each city was the "First National Bank. Even more important, the hundreds of new banks that were allowed to open were required to purchase government bonds. Thereby the nation monetized the potential wealth represented by farms, urban buildings, factories, and businesses, and immediately turned that money over to the Treasury for war needs.